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Amphibians and Reptiles Database
Trapelus mutabilis   (MERREM, 1820)  
Synonyms: Agama mutabilis MERREM, 1820; Trapelus aegyptius CUVIER, 1829; Agama inermis REUSS, 1834; Agama gularis REUSS, 1834; Agama aspera WERNER, 1893; Agama latastii BOULENGER, 1885; Agama pallida REUSS, 1834; Agama deserti LICHTENSTEIN, 1823; Agama loricata REUSS, 1834; Agama nigrofasciata REUSS, 1834
Subspecies: Trapelus mutabilis mutabilis (MERREM, 1820)
Trapelus mutabilis pallidus (REUSS, 1834)
Trapelus mutabilis poppeki WAGNER et al., 2011
Distribution: Trapelus mutabilis mutabilis: SE Morocco, Mauritania, WesternSahara,? (Trapelus boehmei), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt (Terra typica), Mali, Iraq, Chad, Sudan
Trapelus mutabilis pallidus: Egypt (Terra typica: southern Egypt), Israel
Trapelus mutabilis poppeki: Libya
NCBI ID: 311450    (opens in new window)
NCBI ID(s): 690290    (opens in new window)
Comment(s): Both ssp., mutabilis and pallidus have the same Terra typica (Egypt). WAGNER et al. (2011), revalidating pallidus, dont give distributions for both ssp.! See also Trapelus pallidus

Trapelus mutabilis pallidus; Al Jaffer, Jordan (Photo: Jürgen Frommer)
Trapelus mutabilis pallidus; Negev, Israel; April 2012 (Photo: Paul Lambourne)

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Literature:
Al-Sadoon, M.K. (1988): SURVEY OF THE REPTILIAN FAUNA OF THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA. II. THE LIZARD AND AMPHISBAENIAN FAUNA OF RIYADH PROVINCE -- Bull. Maryland herp. soc. 24(3): 58 - 76--

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The lizard and Amphisbaenian fauna inhabiting Riyadh Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of 455 specimens from various localities in the province. Twenty six species belonging to five families: Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae were recorded. One species of Amphisbaenian belongs to family Trogonophidae was recorded, Agama stellio brachydactyla, Chalcides ocellatus, Chalcides levitoni, Diplometopon zarudnyi, Mesalina guttulata, Mesalina brevirostris, Pristurus rupestris and Stenodactylus slevinii were reported from Riyadh Province for the first time. Hie geographical distribution of the collected species within this province and in Saudi Arabia was mapped.

AMR, Z., A. SHEHAB & M. ABU BAKER (2007): Recent observations on the herpetofauna of Syria with notes on trade in reptiles -- HERPETOZOA 20 (1/2): 21 -26--

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Further localities for two species of amphibians [Hyla savigny, Triturus (O.) vittatus] and fourteen of reptiles [Blanus strauchi, Testudo graeca, Chelonia mydas, Mauremys caspica, Asaccus elisae, Cyrtopodion scaber, Laudakia stellio, Trapelus ruderatus, T. persicus, T pallidus, Eumeces schneideri, Ophisops elegans, Varanus griseus, Coluber (H.) nummifer] collected or observed in Syria are given with some notes. Emphasis on trade in reptiles in Syria revealed that at least five species are threatened due to excessive trade, including the Middle Eastern Spur-thighed Tortoise, Testudo graeca terrestris, the Striped-necked Turtle, Mauremys rivulata, the Mediterranean Chameleon, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, the Dabb, Uromastyx aegyptia, and two snakes; Natrix sp. and Coluber jugularis. KURZFASSUNG Es wird über weitere Fundorte von zwei Arten von Amphibien [Hyla savigny, Triturus (O.) vittatus] und vierzehn von Reptilien [Blanus strauchi, Testudo graeca, Chelonia mydas, Mauremys caspica, Asaccus elisae, Cyrtopodion scaber, Laudakia stellio, Trapelus ruderatus, T. persicus, T. pallidus, Eumeces schneideri, Ophisops elegans, Varanus griseus, Coluber (H.) nummifer] berichtet, die in Syrien gefangen oder beobachtet wurden. Zusätzlich werden Angaben über den Lebensraum am Fundort gemacht. Bei der Befassung mit dem Reptilienhandel in Syrien, stellten sich zumindest fünf Arten als durch uneingeschränkten Handel gefährdet heraus, nämlich die Syrische Landschildkröte Testudo graeca terrestris, die Kaspische Bachschildkröte Mauremys rivulata, das Europäische Chamäleon, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, die Ägyptische Dornschwanzagame Uromastyx aegyptia und zwei Schlangenarten, eine Wassernatter (Natrix sp.) und die Pfeilnatter Coluber jugularis.

Anderson, J. (1898): Zoology of Egypt. Vol 1: Reptilia and Batrachia -- Bernard Quaritch, London. 572 pp.--


Anderson, J. (1892): On a small Collection of Mamals, Reptiles and Batrachians from Barbary. -- Proc. zool. Soc. London 1892: 3 - 24 + 1 plate--


Andersson, L.G. (1904): List of Reptiles and Batrachians collected by The Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt, the Sudan and the Sinaitic Peninsula -- Jägerskiöld, L.A. (ed.) RESULTS OF THE SWEDISH ZOOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO EGYPT AND THE WHITE NILE 1901, part I. 1 - 12 (sep. pag.)--


Andres, A. (1921): Reptilien aus der Sinaihalbinsel -- Zool. Anz. 53: 16 - 20--


Andreucci, A. (1913): CONTRIBUTO ALLA FAUNA DELLA TRIPOLITANIA (vertebrata part) -- Bullettino della Società entomologica italiana 45: 185 - 192--


Angel, F. (1936): REPTILES ET BATRACIENS SYRIE ET DE MÉSOPOTAMIE RÉCOLTÉS PAR M. P. PALLARY -- Bull. Inst. d'Egypte 18: 107 - 116--


Angel, F. (1923): REPTILES DU SAHARA, RAPPORTES PAR LA MISSION DÛ COLONEL HOVART. DESCRIPTION D'UN OPHIDIEN NOUVEAU DU GENRE RHAMPHIOPHIS -- Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 29(3): 205 - 208--


Angel, F. (1932): SUR QUELQUES REPTILES ET BATRACIENS DU SAHARA -- Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris 2e ser. 4(4): 385--


Angel, F. (1938): LISTE DES REPTILES DE MAURITANIE RECUEILLIS PAR LA MISSION D'ÉTUDES DE LA BIOLOGIE DES ACRIDIENS EN 1936 ET 1937. DESCRIPTION D'UNE SOUS-ESPÈCE NOUVELLE D'ERYX MUELLERI -- Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, ser. 2. 10(5): 485 - 487--


Anonymus (2010): III. THE BIOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS. 1. THE HERPETOLOGICAL COLLECTION (SECTION OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES). 1a. HISTORY OF THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY HERPETOLOGY COLLECTION, 1b. THE HERPETOLOGICAL COLLECTION (SECTION OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES), REPORT OF THE SECTION, 1c. AN ANNOTATED LIST OF TYPES IN THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY HERPETOLOGICAL COLLECTION AND THEIR REFERENCES -- Haasiana 5: 11 - 34--


Arnold, E.N. (1986): A Key and Annotated Check List to the Lizards and Amphisbaenian of Arabia -- Fauna Saudi Arabia 8: 385 - 435--

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A key and checklist is provided to the 96 species and six additional subspecies of lizards and two species of Amphisbaenians known to occur in and around Arabia

BARATA, M., A. PERERA, D.J. HARRIS, A.v.d. MEIJDEN, S. CARRANZA, F. CEACERO, E. GARCIA-MUNOZ, D. GONCALVES, S. HENRIQUES, F. JORGE, J.C. MARSHALL, L. PEDRAJAS & P. SOUSA (2011): New observations of amphibians and reptiles in Morocco, with a special emphasis on the eastern region -- Herpetological Bulletin 116: 4 - 14--

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This study reports the observations of 54 species of amphibians and reptiles obtained during four field surveys to Morocco, including the southern and southeastern regions. our records reveal a notable expansion of the current distribution range for several species especially in the eastern part of the country, highlighting the need for more intensive sampling within this region.

Barbour, T. (1914): NOTES ON SOME REPTILES FROM SINAI AND SYRIA. -- PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW ENGLAND ZOOLOGICAL CLUB Vol. V, pp. 73-92 + 1 plate--


Barnestein, J.A.M., L. García-Cardenete, F. Jiménez-Cazalla, A. Valdeón, E. Escoriza, G. Martínez, J. Benavides, J.L. Esteban, J. Fuentes, A. Ramírez, J. Álvarez & I. Jaén-Velázquez (2012): Nuevas localidades de Myriopholis algeriensis y Lamprophis fuliginosus, y otras citas herpetológicas, en Marruecos -- Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Esp. 23(2): 63 - 68--


Bauer, A.M., J.C. DeBoer & D.J. Taylor (2017): Atlas of the Reptiles of Libya -- PROCEEDINGS OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, ser. 4; 64(8): 155 - 318--

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Libya has one of the most depauperate reptile faunas in Africa, but it also remains one of the most poorly documented. Although localized collecting was carried out during the Italian colonial period (1912-1943), post-World War II field surveys have largely been limited to El Kouf National Park in northern Cyrenaica and a number of short duration field trips in other parts of the country. A combination of limited accessibility to much of the country and periods of political instability have precluded more extensive herpetological research in contrast to some other regions of North Africa, although there has been active research by Libyan scientists in recent years. In order to provide a starting point for future faunal and biogeographic studies of Libyan reptiles, we collected locality data from 3350 museum specimens and 163 literature sources, yielding 683 unique localities which we georeferenced and used to generate a gazetteer and corresponding index maps as well as species maps of each of the 66 species of reptiles confirmed to occur in Liby a. Data relating to type material as well as taxonomic and distributional comments are also provided for each taxon. Libyan reptiles include three marine turtles (only one nesting), three terrestrial chelonians (one with two subspecies), 39 lizards (two with two subspecies), and 21 snakes. Tarentola fascicularis (Phyllodactylidae) is a species complex represented by several, as yet undescribed taxa. Three subspecies and one full species of reptile are currently regarded as endemic to Libya, although Myriopholis lanzai from southwestern Fezzan, is likely to occur in neighboring Algeria. Libya's fauna is very different from that of its southern neighbors, in w hich Sahel taxa predominate, but similarities with Egypt, Tunisia, and especially Algeria, are great. The dominant biogeographic pattern in Libya is the contrasts between the narrow Mediterranean zone and the arid zones of the Sahara Desert and steppe-desert transition. However, many species of mesic areas occur sporadically in the arid zone, usually in association with oases, and others seem euryoecious. A secondary pattern is an east-west division of the Mediterranean zone in the Gulf of Sirte, w hich separates Tripolitanian taxa with faunal ties to the Maghreb from Cyrenaican taxa with affinities to Egypt and even the Middle East.

Blanc, C.P. (1986): Le Peuplement en Reptiles de l'Extrême-Sud Tunisien -- Amphibia-Reptilia 7: 385 - 392--


Bodenheimer, F.S. (1935): ANIMAL LIFE IN PALESTINE. III. REPTILES AND AMPHIBIA. pp. 181 - 199. In: -- ANIMAL LIFE IN PALESTINE. An introduction to the problems of animal ecology and zoogeography. L. Mayer, Jerusalem, 506 pp.--


Bons, J. (1972): Herpétologie Marocaine I: Liste commentée des amphibiens et reptiles du Maroc -- Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. Maroc 52 (3/4): 107-126--

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Cette note est destinée à faire le point sur le peuplement herpétologique du Maroc. Elle comprend: — Une liste des formes effectivement présentes au Maroc, avec les affinités biogéographiques des espèces, et éventuellement les travaux récents où ces formes sont étudiées. — Des commentaires sur les espèces africaines douteuses en Europe et européennes douteuses en Afrique. — Une liste des espèces à rechercher au Maroc. — Une discussion sommaire sur la systématique de certaines espèces marocaines.

Boulenger, G.A. (1891): Catalogue of the Reptiles and Batrachians of Barbary (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), based chiefly upon the Notes and Collections made in 1880-1884 by M. Fernand Lataste. -- Transactions zool. Soc., London. XIII (1895): 93 - 164 + 6 plates--


Boulenger, G.A. (1914): Contributo alle studio della Fauna Libica. Materiali raccolti nelle zone di Misurata e Homs (1912-1913) dal. Dott. Alfredo Andreini, Capitano Medico. Rettili e Batraci -- Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genua, ser. 3(46): 79 - 80--


Boulenger, G.A. (1914): Contributo allo Studio della Fauna Libica. Materiali racolti nelle Zone Misurata e Homs (1912-13) dall Dot. Alfredo Andreini, Capitano Medico. Rettili e Batraci -- Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat., Genova 46: --


BRITO, J.C., H. REBELO, P.-A. CROCHET & P. GENIEZ (2008): Data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles from North and West Africa, with emphasis on Acanthodactylus lizards and the Sahara Desert -- Herp. Bulletin 105: 19 - 27--


Brito, J.C., P. Tarroso, C.G. Vale, F. Martinez-Freiria, Z. Boratynski, J.C. Campos, S. Ferreira, R. Godinho, D.V. Goncalves, J.V. Leite, V.O. Lima, P. Pereira, X. Santos, M.J. Ferreira da Silva, T.L. Silva, G. Velo-Anton, J. Verissimo, P.-A. Crochet (2016): Conservation Biogeography of the Sahara-Sahel: additional protected areas are needed to secure unique biodiversity -- Diversity and Distributions, (Diversity Distrib.) (2016) 1–14. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12416. incl. 53 pp suppl.--

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Aim: Identification of priority conservation areas and evaluation of coverage of the current protected areas are urgently needed to halt the biodiversity loss. Identifying regions combining similar environmental traits (climate regions) and species assemblages (biogroups) is needed for conserving the biodiversity patterns and processes. We identify climate regions and biogroups and map species diversity across the Sahara-Sahel, a large geographical area that exhibits wide environmental heterogeneity and multiple species groups with distinct biogeographical affinities, and evaluate the coverage level of current network of protected areas for biodiversity conservation. -- Location: Sahara-Sahel, Africa. -- Methods: We use spatially explicit climate data with the principal component analysis and model-based clustering techniques to identify climate regions. We use distributions of 1147 terrestrial vertebrates (and of 125 Sahara-Sahel endemics) and apply distance clustering methods to identify biogroups for both species groups. We apply reserve selection algorithms targeting 17% of species distribution, climate regions and biogroups to identify priority areas and gap analysis to assess their representation within the current protected areas. -- Results: Seven climate regions were identified, mostly arranged as latitudinal belts. Concentrations of high species richness were found in the Sahel, but the central Sahara gathers most endemic and threatened species. Ten biogroups (five for endemics) were identified. A wide range of biogroups tend to overlap in specific climate regions. Identified priority areas are inadequately represented in protected areas, and six new top conservation areas are needed to achieve conservation targets. -- Main conclusions: Biodiversity distribution in Sahara-Sahel is spatially structured and apparently related to environmental variation. Although the majority of priority conservation areas are located outside the areas of intense human activities, many cross multiple political borders and require internationally coordinated efforts for implementation and management. Optimized biodiversity conservation solutions at regional scale are needed. Our work contradicts the general idea that deserts are uniform areas and provide options for the conservation of endangered species.

Calabresi, E. (1923): Missione Zoologica del Dr. E. FESTA in Cirenaica. Anfibi e Rettili -- Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. comp.R. Univ. Torino, nov. ser. 7(38): 1 - 28--


CAMARASA S., J. FERRER, M. AIT HAMMOU, W. DAHMANI, M'h. MAATOUG, D. SANUY & A. DELLAL (2015): Étude de l´herpétofaune de la région de Tiaret et zones avoisinantes -- Revue Ecologie-Environnement (11): 1 - 12--

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The study that we present has two objectives: to expand our knowledge of the herpetofauna in the region of Tiaret and bordering areas, with a primary focus on distribution and update the threats that will affect this group, to propose solutions to protect and conserve the species of these areas. In spring 2014, we identified in this study, 6 species of amphibians and 22 species of reptiles. In some cases, we collected biological samples for later analysis. The majority of locations where prospected between May 22 and June 7, has a high biodiversity of herpetofauna, which shows how important it is, to preserve this species.

Chabanaud, M.P. (1924): REPTILES RECUEILLIS PAR M. Th. MONOD EN MAURITANIE ET AUX ILES DU CAP-VERT -- BULLETIN DU MUSÉUM NATIONAL D’HISTOIRE NATURELLE 30: 54 - --


Condorelli Francaviglia, M. (1896): Sopra diverse specie di rettili (Saurii ed Ophidii) raccolti presso Tripoli. -- Boll. Soc. Roma stud. zool. 5(1-2)5: 30 - 48--


Crochet, P.A. (1997): HERPETOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN SOUTHERN ISRAEL -- British Herpetological Society Bulletin. No.60: 13 - 24--

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One species of amphibian and 25 species of reptiles were seen in Israel (mainly around Elat in the southern 'Arava valley) during October, 1994. Psammophis schokari is reported for the first time from southern 'Arava, where only Psammophis aegyptius had been found until now. Cytropodion scaber is recorded for the third time from this country. Both Tropiocolotes steudneri and T nattereri were found, although not in the same area. A full list of localities is given for every species. During a one-month stay in southern Israel, several species of reptiles and amphibians were observed, mainly in the southern 'Arava valley but also in Sede Boqer (Negev). An exhaustive list of these data is given. Most observations agree with the already known distribution of the taxa as published by Werner (1988) and modified by subsequent papers, although additional information is given for some species. Ecological and behavioural data are given as well since little has been published except in Hebrew on most of these species. The field work took place between 30, September and 29, October 1994. The best prospected area is constituted by the immediate surroundings of Elat. Several trips were made to the Elat mountains and the 'Arava valley between Yotvata and the Red Sea. Casual observations were made every day during bird or reptile oriented trips. Around Elat, I tried to visit as many different habitats as possible, both at day and at night Only day-time visits were made to more distant areas. This results in an unequal coverage of the prospected area..

Disi, A.M. (2011): Review of the lizard fauna of Jordan (Reptilia: Sauria) -- Zoology in the Middle East, Supplementum 3, 2011: 89–102. --

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The lizard fauna of Jordan is very diverse and forms 55.5% of the terrestrial herpetofauna of the country. Lizard species of Arabian origin form the highest percentage (43%) of the lizards, followed by Saharo-Sindian (35%), Palaearctic (20%) and only 2% with Afrotropical affinities. 69.1% of the lizard species inhabit two ecozones: Badia (Eastern Desert); and Wadi Araba and Wadi Rum. The Badia may form the focal point for the evolution of certain Acanthodactylus species. Jordan forms the southernmost limit of the distribution of some Palaearctic species (i.e. Lacerta media, L. laevis, Pseudopus apodus) and they inhabit the Mediterranean ecozone. The presence of diverse habitats in Jordan allowed certain allopatric congeneric species of the genus Ptyodactylus to live in isolation from one another. Southern Jordan and Wadi Rum are part of the Levantine land bridge and act as a “biogeographical filter”. Most of the species found in Wadi Rum are of Arabian affinities and their distribution does not extend towards the west.

Donaire, D., J.A. Mateo, M. Hasi & Ph. Geniez (2000): NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA FAUNA REPTILIANA DE LA HAMADA DE TINDUF (ARGELIA) -- Boll. Asoc. Herp. Esp. 11(1): 8 - 12--


Doumergue, F. (1901): ESSAI SUR LA FAUNE ERPÉTOLOGIQUE DE L'ORANIE AVEC DES TABLEAUX ANALYTIQUES ET DES NOTIONS POUR LA DÉTERMINATION DE TOUS LES REPTILES & BATRACIENS DU MAROC, DE L'ALGÉRIE ET DE LA TUNISIE -- Bulletin de la Société de Géographie et d'Archéologie d'Oran T. XIX á XXI. 461 pp.--


Dumeril, A.M.C. & G. Bibron (1837): Erpetologie generale ou Histoire des Reptiles. Tome IV. -- Libraire Encyclopedique de Roret, Paris; 598 pp.-- get PDF from Online Library


Eichwald, E.v. (1851): Amphibian and Reptiles part (Algeria). pp. 414 - 444. In: -- Naturhistorische Bemerkungen, als Beitrag zur vergleichenden Geognosie auf einer Reise durch die Eifel, Tyrol, Italien, Sizilien und Algier. Moscow. Stuttgart, in comm. by Schweizerbart.--


Essghaier, M.F.A., I.M. Taboni & K.S. Etayeb (2015): The diversity of wild animals at Fezzan Province (Libya) -- Biodiversity Journal 6(1): 245–252--

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Fezzan province (Libya) is a segment of true Sahara, is characterized by diverse habitats that are utilized as shelters and feeding ground for many desert wildlife species. Oases with water table near the surface are the most prominent feature in the Libyan desert. The diversity in habitats resulted in diversity in wildlife, as well as the plant cover (trees and bushes) is the most effective factor for the existence and the abundance of wild animals, in particular bird species. This study observed many species of reptiles, birds and mammals. In the study is also reported the rock hyrax Procavia capensis Pallas, 1766 (Hyracoidea Procaviidae) a rare and endemic species at the area.

Esterbauer, H. (1985): Zur Herpotofauna Südwestsyriens -- herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 7(38): 23 - 34--

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The amphibians and reptiles occuring in the Southwest of Syria have had relatively little attention. This area has been exposed to increasing change and deterioration during the last decades. The herpetofauna can at best be surveyed using secondary information on the distribution in the bordering countries Jordan, Israel, and Lebanon. Therefore, in the following list only those specimens ae considered, which the author collected himself, or which he got from acquaintances. In the latter cases, the locality data were checked thoroughly.

FERRER, J., W. DAHMANI, M. AIT HAMMOU, S. CAMARASA, M. MAATOUG & D. SANUY (2016): Contribució al coneixement de l’herpetofauna del nord d’Algèria (regions de Tiaret i Chlef) -- Butll. Soc. Catalana Herpetologia, 23: 44-63.--

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The main work was done in spring 2014, between May 22 to June 7. Two areas where prospected, Tiaret region and Chlef region, which have a very different characteristics, bioclimatic condition, geomorphology and vegetation’s, for each one. So, a total of 28 species where identified, 6 Amphibians and 22 Reptiles. Also, we collected biological samples for later analysis (DNA analysis). The two areas prospected had a high biodiversity of herpetofauna. We made a first distribution and update the threats that will affect this group, for the conservation of the species of these areas, which made the two regions more important to be preserved.

Flower, S.S. (1933): Notes on the Recent Reptiles and Amphibians of Egypt, with a List of the Species recorded from that Kingdom. -- Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1933: 735 - 851--


FRANCAVIGLIA, M.C. (1896): SOVRA DIVERSE SPECIE DI RETTILI (SAURII ED OFIDII) RACCOLTI PRESSO TRIPOLI -- Bollettino della Societa romana di Zoologia 5: 30 - 48--


FRANKENBERG, E. & Y.L. WERNER (1992): EGG, CLUTCH AND MATERNAL SIZES IN LIZARDS: INTRA-AND INTERSPECIFIC RELATIONS IN NEAR-EASTERN AGAMIDAE AND LACERTIDAE -- HERPETOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 2: 7 - 18--

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We provide daia on the fecundity of locally common Israeli reptiles, and use these data to examine current ideas on the reproductive ecology of lizards. Our methodology was selected in consideration of the acute problems of nature conservation in Israel. In the museum collections of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv University we used radiography to locate the shelled oviductal eggs of 164 female lizards, belonging to eleven species (Agamidae and Lacertidae). Each sample sums the species' variation over its range and over different years. Female body size, egg number and egg volume were determined. Specific clutch volumes, relative to maternal body lengths, resembled those reported in iguanid lizards from tropical America. Clutch size varied intraspecifically and. in most species, correlated to maternal size. In others, egg size was more influenced by maternal size. We argue that the latter species oviposit in more stable environments than do the majority.

GARCÍA-CARDENETE, L., J.M. PLEGUEZUELOS, J.C. BRITO, F. JIMÉNEZ-CAZALLA, M.T. PÉREZ-GARCÍA & X. SANTOS (2014): Water cisterns as death traps for amphibians and reptiles in arid environments -- Environmental Conservation 41(4): 341–349--

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Arid regions are increasingly being anthropogenically altered. In the north-western Sahara, a growing road network facilitates the use of habitats adjacent to roads. In regions where livestock is the traditional and main economic resource, local people are currently building numerous water cisterns for watering livestock, leading to an increase in the extent of pasturing of domestic livestock. Cisterns may attract desert vertebrates and act as death traps for species with already sparse populations in these arid areas. This paper is the first to examine the impact of cisterns as lethal traps for amphibians and reptiles in the Sahara, using a survey of 823 cisterns in south-western Morocco to identify and quantify species affected. Four amphibians and 35 reptiles were trapped in cisterns, some of which were listed as threatened.At least 459 017 individual amphibians and reptiles were trapped annually within the study area. The low productivity and low population densities of terrestrial vertebrates in this arid region suggest cisterns have a substantial impact upon amphibian and reptile species. As cistern construction is increasing, management actions are required to mitigate this impact on the herpetological community.

Gasco, F. (1876): Rettili. pp. 105 - 121 -- F. Gasco (ed.) VIAGGIO IN EGITTO DEI SOCII P. PANCERI E F. GASCO nell' anno 1873 - 1874. parte seconda.- Trani (Milano).--


GENIEZ, M. & Ph. GENIEZ (1993): NOUVELLES OBSERVATIONS SUR L'HERPÉTOFAUNE MAROCAINE, 4: LE SAHARA OCCIDENTAL, 2 -- Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr. 67-68: 1-10--

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Observations were made in 1992 in Western Sahara, an area with little known herpetofauna. The list follows an earlier one (Geniez M. et al., 1992).

GENIEZ, M., P.-C. BEAUBRUN & Ph. GENIEZ (1992): NOUVELLES OBSERVATIONS SUR L'HERPÉTOFAUNE MAROCAINE, 3: LE SAHARA OCCIDENTAL -- Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr. 63: 7-14--

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The authors list and comment on amphibians and reptiles observed in Western Sahara during recent years.

GENIEZ, Ph., J.A. MATEO & J. BONS (2000): A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Western Sahara (Amphibia, Reptilia) -- HERPETOZOA 13 (3/4): 149 - 163--

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The list of the amphibians and reptiles of Western Sahara includes 46 species (4 amphibians and 42 reptiles), while 13 further species unknown in this area could conceivably be discovered there. Among the important facts, we exclude Tarentola boehmei from the fauna of Western Sahara, and report on the effect of the Jbel Ouarkziz which acts as a biogeographical boundary, separating the herpetofaunal elements from Morocco (north of the Jbel Ouarkziz) and from Western Sahara. The herpetofauna of Western Sahara is composed as follows: 10 species can be considered as being of Mediterranean affinities, 2 as North Saharan, 19 as purely Saharan, 7 as being of Sahelian affinities, 4 are tropical relicts and 4 are limited to the oceanic fringe of the Sahara and can be considered as "continental Macaronesian endemics". This confirms that the herpetofauna of Western Sahara is mainly of Saharan origin but that this area is, in spite of its apparently uniform landscape, a biogeographical cross-roads for Amphibians and Reptiles. This can be related to the wide latitudinal amplitude of Western Sahara and by the climate contrast between the oceanic fringe, comparatively humid and temperate, and the remaining of the country, subject to a dry Saharan climate with strongly contrasted temperature.

Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, I. (1827): DESCRIPTION DES REPTILES QUI SE TROUVENT EN ÉGYPTE -- In: DESCRIPTION DE L'ÉGYPTE, OU RECUEIL DES OBSERVATIONS ET DES RECHERCHES QUI ONT ÉTÉ FAITES EN ÉGYPTE PENDANT L'EXPÉDITION DE L'ARMÉE FRANÇAISE, PUBLIÉ PAR LES ORDRES DE SA MAJESTÉ L'EMPEREUR NAPOLÉON LE GRAND. HISTOIRE NATURELLE. Tome I (1827): 115 - 160 + 13 plates--


Ghigi, A. (1920): Vertebrati di Cirenaica raccolti dal Prof. Allesandro Ghigi nella escursione organizzata dal Touring Club Italiano 15 - 24 Aprile 1920 -- Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 7(7): 197 - 212--


Ghigi, A. (1913): MATERIALI PER LO STUDIO DELLA FAUNA LIBICA -- Mem. R. Acad. Sci. Inst., Bologna 6(10): 253 - 296--


Ghigi, A. (1920): VERTEBRATI DI CIRENAICA -- Mem. R. Acad. Sci. Inst., Bologna 7(7): 197 - --


Gholamifard, A., N. Rastegar-Pouyani & H.R. Esmaeili (2012): Annotated checklist of reptiles of Fars Province, southern Iran -- Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics (IJAB) 8(2): 155-167--

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The revised checklist of reptiles for Fars Province, southern Iran, comprises of 63 species in 41 genera, 17 families and two orders (Squamata and Testudines). The most diverse suborder is the Sauria with 38 species or 60.31% of the herpetofauna, followed by Serpentes (23 species, 36.5%) and the Testudines (2 species, 3.17%). The most diverse families are the Colubridae and Gekkonidae with 15 and 14 species (23.8% and 22.2%), respectively, followed by Agamidae (9 species, 14.3%), Lacertidae and Scincidae each with five species or 7.9% of the herpetofauna, and Viperidae (four species, 6.35%). Eleven families have only one species each. The Fars Province is the type locality of several endemic species, as a new species has recently been described as well as several newly recorded species.

Goodman, S.M. & J.J. Hobbs (1994): THE DISTRIBUTION AND ETHNOZOOLOGY OF REPTILES OF THE NORTHERN PORTION OF THE EGYPTIAN EASTERN DESERT -- J. Ethnobiol. 14(1):75-100--

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In this paper we review the occurrence and distribution of reptiles known from the northern portion of the Egyptian Eastern Desert and the ethnozoology of these animals as viewed by a local Bedouin tribe, the Khushmaan Ma'aza. Particular emphasis is placed on reptile folklore, local names, taxonomy, use as medicine, and natural history as conceived by the Khushmaan; this information is contrasted with Western scientific thought. In most cases these two views are congruent with one another. The major exception is that the Bedouins consider several reptiles venomous which are not known to be so by herpetologists.

GORMAN, G.C. & D. SHOCKAT (1972): A TAXONÒMIC INTERPRETATION OF CHROMOSOMAL AND ELECTROPHORETIC DATA ON THE AGAMID LIZARDS OF ISRAEL WITH NOTES ON SOME EAST AFRICAN SPECIES -- HERPETOLOCICA 28: 106 - 112.--

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Electrophoretic mobilities of several protein systems were compared among representatives of the six species of agamid lizards of Israel. Preliminary observations were made on chromosome cytology. The karyotypes and electrophoretic mobilities of a single enzyme system in three species of east African Agama were also examined. Agama savignii and Agama pallida are closely related. They have indistinguishable karyotypes and share identical electrophoretic mobilities for hemoglobin, serum albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes. Agama stellio and Agama sinaita have common LDH's but differ from each other at all other biochemical loci and in karyotypes. The latter two species share none of the examined characters in common with the first pair. Uromastyx aegyptiius and U. ornatus have electrophoretically identical hemoglobin, serum albumin, and LDH. They differ from Agama at virtually all loci examined. The karyotype was incompletely analyzed but resembles that of A. stellio. Agama atricollis from Tanzania has a karyotype similar to A. stellio and is indistinguishable from A. stellio in the electrophoretic mobility of the LDH isoenzymes. Agama agama from Uganda and Agama planiceps from Tanzania differ from each other and all other species examined in karyotypes but show similarities to A. savignii and A, pallida. These two African species are identical to the two Israeli species in LDH mobility.

Gray, J.E. (1831): A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. Agama part -- In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed. -- V Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London--


GUZMÁN, J.L., F. CEACERO & E. GARCÍA-MUÑOZ (2007): Nuevas citas de anfibios y reptiles en Marruecos -- MUNIBE (Suplemento/Gehigarria) 25: 82-87 --

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New records of amphibians and reptiles from Morocco. -- The current study shows 96 records for 30 species of amphibians and reptiles in 49 different localities of Morocco. These localities start in Tangier, in the north of the country with Mediterranean climate, and they end in Merzuaga, near the Algerian border with Saharan climate.

Haas, G. (1957): Some amphibians and Reptiles from Arabia -- Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., 29(3): 47 - 86--


Haas, G. (1943): On a Collection of Reptiles from Palestine, Transjordan, and Sinai -- Copeia 1943(1): 10 - 15--


Haas, G. (1951): THE HERPETOFAUNA OF PALESTINE - ON THE PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF PALESTINE -- Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel, 1: 67 - 95--

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A summary of research on the Reptile Fauna of the Territory between the Mediterranean Sea and the Syrian Desert including the Sinai Peninsula, with special consideration of the area now occupied by the states of Israel and Jordan. About 90 species are briefly reported. The bulk of new data on dispersal and new species concerns material in the Collection of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Several dubious or erroneous statements in the older literature are discussed. Since Flower's paper on "The Reptiles and Amphibia of Egypt", approximately 10 new species have been added for this region.

HARRIS, D. J., M.A. CARRETERO, J.C. BRITO, A.KALIONTZOPOULOU, C. PINHO, A. PERERA, R. VASCONCELOS, M. BARATA, D. BARBOSA, S. CARVALHO, M. FONSECA, G. PEREZ-LANUZA & C. RATO (2008): Data on the distribution of the terrestrial herpetofauna of Morocco: records from 2001-2006 -- Herpetol. Bull. 103: 19 - 28--


Hart, H.C. (1891): Reptilia. (and amphibia) pp. 209 - 211 in: -- SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF SINAI, PETRA, AND WADY 'ARABAH (London)--


Hartert, E. (1913): Expedition to the central Western Sahara. V. Reptiles and Batrachians -- Nov. zool. 20: 76 - 84--

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Description of Rana esculenta var. saharica = Pelophylax saharicus by Boulenger

Hartmann, R. (1865): Thierwelt -- Naturgeschichtlich-medicinische Skizze der Nilländer.- Schulze(Berlin): 185 - 208--


HARTMANN, U.-K. & J. RUTSCHKE (1994): Die Sahara: Herpetologische Eindrücke aus einem kalten Land unter heißer Sonne. Teil 2: Beobachtungen zur Lebensweise einzelner Amphibien- und Reptilienarten -- herpetofauna 16 (91): 11 - 18--

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Between 1979 and 1992 both authors undertook altogether eight journeys through the neighbouring states of the Sahara, Marocco, Algeria, Tunesia, Egypt and Mali . From their observations there, the habits of some amphibian and repfile species of these areas, is described.

Hertz, P.E. & E. Nevo (1981): THERMAL BIOLOGY OF FOUR ISRAELI AGAMID LIZARDS IN EARLY SUMMER -- ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 30: 190-210 --

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The agamid lizard genera Agama and Stellio differ in thermal biology during early summer in Israel. Species of Agama (A. pallida, A. savignii, and A. sinaita) are small, live in hot desert habitats, and frequently use thermoregulatory behaviors that foster convective cooling. Individuals in local populations maintain body temperatures within a narrow range (within and among species), and body temperatures are only slightly higher than air and substrate temperatures. In contrast, Stellio stellio is of moderately large size, occupies cooler habitats, and frequently uses behaviors which tend to increase rates of heat gain. Body temperatures for Stellio are lower than those of Agama, but are more elevated above environmental temperatures. In two Stellio populations at high altitudes, body temperatures were extremely variable. In the laboratory, A. savignii was more tolerant of high temperatures than any of four populations of Stellio, but tolerance of low temperatures did not vary among any of these five populations. Differences in thermal biology between the two genera may influence their geographical distribution in Israel.

Hussein, H.K. & A.D.M. Darwish (2001): A Survey of the Herpetofauna of Bisha District, South of Saudi Arabia -- OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences 1 (8): 728-730--

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A survey of the herpetofauna was made in different localities of Bisha district, south of Saudi Arabia. Out of 293 specimens 12 amphibians and 281 reptiles were collected. Lizards were the most collected reptilian species (86.69 %), while Amphisbaenians comprised the little group of the sample. The snakes belonged to three families; most of them were colubrid species. Only one bufonid species (Amphibia) and one species of turtle were collected.

Ibrahim, A.A. (2013): The Herpetology of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt -- Vertebrate Zoology 63(1): 87 - 110--

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The banks of the Suez Canal were surveyed for herpetofauna between 1999 and 2012. A total of 33 species from the west bank, 22 from the east and a sea turtle from the Suez Canal were recorded, with five and 18 new records from the west and east sides respectively. Natrix tessellata, inhabiting freshwater canals east of Bitter Lakes, is the first record for the Sinai Peninsula. The new records of amphibians and reptiles of the Suez Canal area are, in fact, a result of recent main changes to habitat. These new environmental changes have resulted in some cases, in more invasive herpetofaunal taxa expanding their ranges into new territories over the past three decades. The number of species occurring on the west bank was greater than on the east bank; this is presumably due to greater variety of habitat, increased urbanization, and a huge web of irrigation canals which have allowed several species to move from River Nile to the Canal zone. This study suggests the Suez Canal acts as passage for herpetofauna from west to east. Individuals of Trapelus savignyi on the west bank were patternless and juveniles had smooth ventrals. This phenotype was not previously known for the species.

Jan, G. (1857): INDICE SISTEMATICO DEI RETTILI ED ANFIBI ESPOSTI NEL MUSEO CIVICO DI MILANO -- Cenni sul Museo Civico di Milano, pp. 29 - 61--


Joger, U. (1981): Zur Herpetofaunistik Westafrikas -- Bonn. zool. Beitr. 32(3-4): 297 - 340--

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1. Three journeys through 10 West African countries (supplemented by some material from other collectors) resulted in a herpetological collection of about 93 species. As far as known, ecological data and observations are provided. 2. The known distribution of the following species is extended to new territories: Agama boueti and Agama paragama — Niger Republic; Dicroglossus occipitalis and Hemidactylus brooki — Air mountains; Bufo xeros — Nigeria; Cnemaspis spinicollis — Togo; HjperoJius occidentalis — Senegal; Lacerta lepida — Algerian central Sahara. 3. For several closely related species which have been regarded conspecific in the past the status as true species is confimed by sympatric records. These are: a) Bufo xeros/B. regularis: Chutes du Felou (western Mali); b) Bufo regularis/B. maculatus: between Onishere and Ore (southern Nigeria), Ngolodougou (northern Ivory Coast); c) Tarentola annularis/T. ephippiata: Dakar-Yoff (western Senegal). 4. Bufo cristiglans Inger & Menzies from Sierra Leone appears to be conspecific with B togoensis Ahl. Five toads from Togo fit well to either of the two diagnoses. 5. Some taxonomical problems demand more intensive studies: a) Most species of the genus Arthroleptis and some Phrynobatrachus could not be determined with the available literature. Generic revisions are necessary. b) Hemidactylus brooki from the Air mountains is morphologically distinct from the savanna populations. The definition of a subspecies may be justified. c) A specimen of Hemidactylus fasciatus from northern Togo, far north of the known distribution area, is conspicuous by its enormous size and unusual coloration. d) The systematic position of central Saharan Uromastyx appears to be in need of a revision. Besides U. geyri from the Hoggar and Air mountains, there are populations of U. acanthinurus in the Tassili-n'Ajjer and further to the north-west, differing in their scalation and in the more or less jet-black coloration of the adults. At least one population is arboricolous. e) Three Echis from western Mali are neither E. ocellatus nor E leucogaster. Possibly they represent a third endemical West African species.

Joger, U. (1991): A Molecular Phylogeny of Agamid Lizards -- Copeia, 1991(3): 616-622 --

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A phylogenetic tree, based on albumin immunological distances, is presented for the Agamidae, with emphasis on the western genera. The Chamaeleonidae appear as the sister group of the Agamidae, which are monophyletic. Uromastyx and Leiolepis represent early sidebranches. The remaining agamids separated into a western and one or more eastern clades during the lower Tertiary. Within the western clade, Trapelus and Agama s.s. are monophyletic, but Stellio is diphyletic. The Palaearctic Stellio s.s. is the sister group of Phrynocephalus, whereas the Ethiopian Stellio atricollis group seems to be more closely related to Pseudotrapelus. Judging from branch lengths in the best fitting Wagner tree, a uniform average evolutionary rate of albumin can be attributed to most lineages, except Acanthosaura, Calotes, and Gonocephalus, which show a marked increase in their albumin evolution, and Uromastyx, which has a comparatively slowly evolving albumin.

Joger, U. (2003): Reptiles and amphibians of southern Tunisia -- Kaupia, Darmstädter Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte 12: 71-88 --

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Collections and observations of reptiles and amphibians assembled during 15 years in southern Tunisia (few from other Tunisian regions) are reported and commented. Special attention was laid on two national parks, Bou Hedma in the pre-saharian steppe and Djebil in the Great Eastern Erg. The existing herpetofaunal list of Bou Hedma is corrected and considerably enlarged. True Mediterranean species are already absent from this semi-arid region, while some desert species reach the northernmost limit of their distribution range here. The dominant species of this region do not occur in the desert nor in the humid mountain areas of the Mediterranean zone. One still undescribed gecko species of the genus Tarentola is apparently endemic for south-central Tunisia. A species inventory for Djebil National Park is presented for the first time. Its fauna is a typical northern Saharan dune community.

Joger, U. & M.R.K. Lambert (1996): Analysis of the herpetofauna of the Republic of Mali, I. Annotated inventory, with description of a new Uromastyx (Sauria: Agamidae) -- Journ. Afr. Zoology 110(1): 21 - 51--

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At least 33 anuran, 7 chelonian, 3 crocodilian, 42 lizard and 54 snake species have been recorded in or at the borders of Mali. Uromastyx maliensis, a new species found between the Niger River and the Tanezrouft desert, is described. New country records from recent collections and museum material comprise Bufo pentoni, B. maculatus, Ptychadena aequiplicata, Phrynobatrachus perpalmatus, Tomopterna sp., Afrixalus weidholzi, Trionyx triunguis, Hemidactylus mabouia, Agama paragama, Acanthodactylus guineensis, Mesalina pasteuri and Echis leucogaster (Tomopterna and Trionyx are genera new to Mali).

Joger, U. & W. Bischoff (1989): Erste Ergebnisse einer herpetologischen Forschungsreise nach Nordwest-Afrika. -- Tier und Museum 1(4): 99 - 106.--

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A report is presented on a herpetological expedition to Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, from April to June 1988. Preliminary scientific results are presented. The most noteworthy result is the discovery in the High Atlas of a new species of Podarcis (Lacertidae), which will soon be scientifically described.

Kissling, W.D., A. Blach-Overgaard, R.E. Zwaan & Ph. Wagner (2016): Historical colonization and dispersal limitation supplement climate and topography in shaping species richness of African lizards (Reptilia: Agaminae) -- Scientific Reports | 6:34014 | DOI: 10.1038/srep34014. 14 pp. + 11 pp. suppl.--

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To what extent deep-time dispersal limitation shapes present-day biodiversity at broad spatial scales remains elusive. Here, we compiled a continental dataset on the distributions of African lizard species in the reptile subfamily Agaminae (a relatively young, Neogene radiation of agamid lizards which ancestors colonized Africa from the Arabian peninsula) and tested to what extent historical colonization and dispersal limitation (i.e. accessibility from areas of geographic origin) can explain present-day species richness relative to current climate, topography, and climate change since the late Miocene (~10 mya), the Pliocene (~3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0.021 mya). Spatial and nonspatial multi-predictor regression models revealed that time-limited dispersal via arid corridors is a key predictor to explain macro-scale patterns of species richness. In addition, current precipitation seasonality, current temperature of the warmest month, paleo-temperature changes since the LGM and late Miocene, and topographic relief emerged as important drivers. These results suggest that deeptime dispersal constraints — in addition to climate and mountain building — strongly shape current species richness of Africa’s arid-adapted taxa. Such historical dispersal limitation might indicate that natural movement rates of species are too slow to respond to rates of ongoing and projected future climate and land use change.

Kolar, K. (1955): Herpetologisches aus Südalgerien -- Deutsche Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) 1955(3): 75 - 78--


König, A. (1892): Die Kriechthierfauna Tunesiens. -- Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande, Westfalens und des Reg.-Bezirks Osnabrück. 49, 5(9): 3 - 26--


Lallemant, Ch. (1865): Erpetologie de l'Algerie ou Catalogue synoptique et analytique des Reptiles et Amphibies de la Colonie -- Savy (Paris). 41 pp.--


Lataste, F. (1881): Liste des Vertebres recueillis par M. le Dr. Andre pendant l'expeditiondes Chotts et determines par M.F. Lataste -- Archives des Missions Scientifiques et Litteraires, Paris, ser. 3(7): 398 - 400.--


Leaché, A.D., Ph. Wagner, C.W. Linkem, W. Böhme, T.J. Papenfuss, R.A. Chong, B.R. Lavin, A.M. Bauer, S.V. Nielsen, E. Greenbaum, M.-O. Rödel, A. Schmitz, M. LeBreton, I. Ineich, L. Chirio, C. Ofori-Boateng, E.A. Eniangm, S. Baha El Din, ............. (2014): A hybrid phylogenetic–phylogenomic approach for species tree estimation in African Agama lizards with applications to biogeography, character evolution, and diversification -- Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 79 215–230--

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Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 species) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many species have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in adult males, large adult male body sizes, and variability in social systems among colorful versus drab species. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated species tree for Agama, and their close relatives, using a hybrid phylogenetic–phylogenomic approach that combines traditional Sanger sequence data from five loci for 57 species (146 samples) with anchored phylogenomic data from 215 nuclear genes for 23 species. The Sanger data are analyzed using coalescent-based species tree inference using *BEAST, and the resulting posterior distribution of species trees is attenuated using the phylogenomic tree as a backbone constraint. The result is a time-calibrated species tree for Agama that includes 95% of all species, multiple samples for most species, strong support for the major clades, and strong support for most of the initial divergence events. Diversification within Agama began approximately 23 million years ago (Ma), and separate radiations in Southern, East, West, and Northern Africa have been diversifying for >10 Myr. A suite of traits (morphological, coloration, and sociality) are tightly correlated and show a strong signal of high morphological disparity within clades, whereby the subsequent evolution of convergent phenotypes has accompanied diversification into new biogeographic areas.

LEACHÉ, A.D., R.A. CHONG, T.J. PAPENFUSS, P. WAGNER, W. BÖHME, A. SCHMITZ, M.-O. RÖDEL, M. LEBRETON, I. INEICH, L. CHIRIO, A. BAUER, E.A. ENIANG & S. BAHA EL DIN (2009): Phylogeny of the genus Agama based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data -- Bonner zoologische Beiträge 56(4): 273–278 --

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We present a preliminary phylogeny for 19 species of African Agama lizards based on a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of 1,181 bp of mitochondrial DNAsequence data. Monophyletic radiations of species in East, South and West Africa are supported, as well as a clade containing two species (A. doriae and A. sankaranica) distributed across the Sahel region. West African populations of A. agama are paraphyletic with respect to A. finchi from westernmost Kenya, providing further evidence for a biogeographic corridor between West and East Africa. Populations of A. agama form four phylogeographic groups, which suggests that A. agama may be composed of multiple independent evolutionary lineages.

Lichtenstein, H. (1856): NOMENCLATOR REPTILIUM ET AMPHIBIORUM MUSEI ZOOLOGICI BEROLINENSIS. Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Reptilien und Amphibien nach ihren Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen. -- Königl. Akad. Wiss. Belin; 50 pp.--


Lortet, L. (1883): POISS0NS ET REPTILES DU LAC DE TIBERIADE TE DE QUELQUES AUTRES PARTIES DE LA SYRIE -- Archives du Museum d´Histoire naturelle de Lyon 3: 99 - 189 + 1 plate--


Martens, (1883): Einige Landschnecken und Reptilien aus der Cyrenaika -- Sitz.Bericht Gesell. naturforsch. Freunde, Berlin 1883(9): 147 - 150--


Masood, M. F. & A.A. Asiry (2012): Ecological studies on diversity of Herpetofauna in Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. -- Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci., 4(1): 143-163--

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Conservation of the biological diversity and sustainable use of the resources of earth are enshrined in Islamic low and principles. It is therefore fitting that in 2001 the kingdom of Saudi Arabia became a signatory to the Convention of Conservation on Biological Diversity that seeks to ensure the conservation of species and their habitats for all time. The study was carried out in Asir region, located in the southwest of the country. Topography and biotic elements of the environment were described. The study area is one of the richest regions of the Kingdom in the diversity of animals, where the region is characterized by the presence of a large group of wild animals belonging to different animal families. In this work, diversity of herpetofauna which found in the region was studied. Seven species of tailless amphibians (Anura) were recorded, belonging to three families, firstly Bufonidae which include four species, Bufo tihamicus, B. dhufarensis, B. arabicus and B. viridis, secondly Hylidae represented by only one species, a tree frog Hyla savignyi, and finally Ranidae represented by two species, Rana ridibunda and Euphlyctis ehrenbergii. The results showed that there are 38 species of reptiles; 23 species of lizards belonging to the families Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Agamidae, Varanidae, and Chamaeleontidae and 14 species of snakes belonging to 5 families: Typholopidae, Leptotypholopidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, and Viperidae. Only one species of Turtles, belongs to family Testudinidae, was recorded. This work was suggested to throw light on the diversity of herpetofauna in Asir region as an important part of the ecosystem that has to be maintained, and to determine species composition of amphibian and reptile communities in different ecosystems as indicators of biodiversity in the study area. It came also to suggest strategies and techniques to determine the abundance of these species.

Melnikov, D., E. Melnikova & R. Nazarov (2013): TAXONOMY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF ARABIAN LIZARDS (in Russ. language) -- Modern herpetology: problems and ways of their solutions. The first International Conference of the Young Herpetologists of Russia and Neighboring Countries. 111 - 114 --


Merrem, B. (1820): Description Agama mutabilis = Trapelus mutabilis -- In: Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). - Marburg, 400 pp. page 50--


Mertens, R. (1922): Verzeichnis der Typen in der herpetologischen Sammlung des Senckenbergischen Museums. -- Senckenbergiana (1920/21) 4: 162-183--


Mosauer, W. & K. Wallis (1927): Macroprotodon cucullatus Geoffr. subspecies nova melanocephala und Tropidonotus (Natrix) viperinus Latr. aberratio nova nigra, zwei Schlangenfunde aus Tunesien. -- Zoolog. Anzeiger 72: 305 - 310--


MOUANE, A., A. SI BACHIR, I. GHENNOUM & A.'K. HARROUCHI (2014): Premières données sur la diversité de l'Herpétofaune de l'Erg oriental (Région du Souf - Algérie) -- Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr. (2013) [2014] 148: 491-502--

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First data on the diversity of the herpetofauna of the Eastern Erg (Souf region - Algeria). This study, based on observations and in situ captures of reptiles and amphibians, brought together information on the herpetofauna of the Souf region (North-East of Algeria). Homogeneous habitat stations representing the main ecosystems and landscape units in this area were sampled. These are the erg (sand dunes), the reg, a saline (chott), a palm grove, and an urban site. Investigations conducted between July 2008 and July 2009 have identified a total of 20 species, including 18 species of reptiles (one order, 10 families and 14 genera), and two anurans (two families and two genders). When looked by habitat type, Lacertidae form the majority of the assemblage in the erg and the reg, while Gekkonidae are more frequent in palm groves and urban areas.

Müller (Mueller), F. (1882): Erster Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Mit Anmerkungen und 1 Tafel. -- Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Basel 7(1): 120 – 165--


MÜLLER (Mueller), F. (1878): Katalog der im Museum und Universitätskabinet zu Basel aufgestellten Amphibien und Reptilien nebst Anmerkungen -- VERHANDL. NATURF. GES., BASEL 6: 558 – 709 + 3 pl.--


Nóbrega Alves, R.R., W.L. Silva Vieira, G. Gomes Santana, K. Silva Vieira & P.F. Guedes Pereira Montenegro (2013): Chapter 7. Herpetofauna Used in Traditional Folk Medicine: Conservation Implications. pp. 109 - -- In: R.R.N. Alves & I.L. Rosa (eds.) Animals in Traditional Folk Medicine. Implications for Conservation.- Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg--

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This chapter provides an overview of the global use of herpetofauna in traditional folk medicine and the implications for conservation. The results indicate that 331 species (284 reptiles and 47 amphibians) are used in traditional folk medicine around the world. Among the species recorded, 182 reptiles and 42 amphibians are listed in the IUCN Red List. Additionally, 93 reptiles are in some of the appendices of CITES. These numbers demonstrate the importance of understanding such medicinal uses in the context of reptile conservation as well as the need for considering sociocultural factors when establishing management plans directed toward the sustainable use of these reptiles.

NOUIRA, S. & Ch.P. BLANC (1986): Le peuplement en Reptiles au sud du Chott El Djérid -- Archs Inst. Pasteur Tunis, 1986, 63 (4), 553-566--

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Twenty species of Reptiles divided into 14 genus and 7 families have been identified from 21 samples of the south of Chott El Djerid. The specific richness seems to decrease on the surroundings of the Chott. The log-normal model shows best the abundance of the distribution observed. In the relation with the pedologic caracteristics of the environment, Reptiles share out themselves between four unities.

Novosolov, M. & S. Meiri (2013): The effect of island type on lizard reproductive traits -- J. Biogeography 2013: 519 pp.--

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Aim. The origins of islands influence island colonization and radiation dynamics, thus exerting differential selection pressures on the species that inhabit them. The occurrence of lower numbers of predator and competitor species on islands than the mainland selects for ‘slow’ life-history attributes (the ‘island syndrome’). Animals colonizing, and radiating on, oceanic islands probably face more novel environments than do those inhabiting continental fragment and land-bridge islands. We hypothesized that oceanic island endemics will show the slowest life histories, whereas land-bridge island species will resemble mainland species the most. We predicted that species on old, small and isolated islands will also have slow life histories. Location. World-wide. Methods. We assembled life-history data for 540 mainland and 319 insular endemic lizard species. We tested whether clutch size, brood frequency, hatchling mass and productivity differed between islands of different origin and between islands and the mainland. We controlled for female size, for latitude and for phylogenetic relationship using the R package . In addition, we tested the influences of island age, area and isolation on species life histories. Results. Oceanic island endemics have the smallest clutches and the largest offspring, and, together with continental fragment island endemics, lay most frequently. Clutch size, brood frequency and productivity increase with increasing island age. Isolation and area have little effect on lizard life history. Main conclusions. Our findings support the proposition that selection pressure differs across island type. The predator-poor environments on oceanic islands select for few, large offspring, while the predator-rich environments of the mainland and land-bridge islands select for many, small offspring. Island geological origin creates the environment within which evolution takes place, and thus plays a major role in life-history evolution. As islands grow older, lizards adapt by increasing their yearly reproductive effort.

Olivier, E. (1894): Herpetologie Algerienne. ou catalogue raisonne des reptiles et des batraciens observes jusqu'a ce jour en Algerie. -- Mem. Soc. zool. France 7: 98 - 130--


Padial, J.M. (2006): COMMENTED DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE REPTILES OF MAURITANIA (WEST AFRICA) -- Graellsia, 62(2): 159-178--

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This is the first comprehensive review of the reptiles of Mauritania. It includes distributional information and comments. Mauritania harbors 86 species of reptiles belonging to 21 families. Among these families, Colubridae and Lacertidae are the most diverse, with 14 and 13 species respectively. Other families, such as Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae or Viperidae are also well represented. Among the 80 continental species, 47.5% are Saharan, 33.8% Afrotropical, 16.2% Sahelian and 2.5% Mediterranean. The marine turtles form another important group, with six species. Eight species are excluded from the country list because of old identification errors, there is not enough evidence of their presence or due to changes in political borders. Among the species expected to occur in Mauritania, at least nine may occur in Saharan environments, 13 in the Sahel savannah and two may have been introduced.

Pellegrin, J. (1909): REPTILES ET BATRACIENS RÉCOLTÉS PAR M. CH. ALLUAUD EN EGYPTE ET AU SOUDAN ÉGYPTIEN -- Bull. Soc. zool. France 43: 203 - 205--


Pellegrin, J. (1931): Reptiles, batraciens et poissons du Sahara Central, recueillis par le Pr. Seurat. -- Bull. Mus. nation. Hist, nat., Paris, Sér. 2, 3: 216-218.--


Pellegrin, J. (1936): Reptiles -- Mission au Tibesti. Zoologie. Etude preliminaire de la faune du Tibesti. Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France 62: 50 - 53--


Peters, W. (1880): Über die von Hrn. Rohlfs und Dr. A. Stecker auf der Reise nach der Oase Kufra gesammelten Amphibien. -- Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1880: 305 - 309--


Ramos, J.J. & M.Á. Diaz-Portero (2008): Aportaciones al conocimiento de la herpetofauna del Jebel Saghro (Antiatlas Oriental, Marruecos) -- Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Esp. 19: 90 - 93--


Reuss, A. (1834): Zoologische Miscellen. Reptilien. Saurier. Batrachier. -- Museum Senckenbergianum. Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte. 28 - 62 + plate III--


Rosen, N. (1905): List of the Lizards in the Zoological Museum of Lund with Descriptions of new Species. -- Ann. Mag. Nat.Hist. 7(16): 129 - 142 + pl. VII--


RUTSCHKE, J. & U.-K. HARTMANN (1994): Die Sahara: Herpetologische Eindrücke aus einem kalten Land unter heißer Sonne.Teil 1: Anpassung der Reptilien an die lebensfeindlichen Bedingungen in der Sahara -- herpetofauna 16(90): 23 - 31--

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In the Sahara, the world greatest desert, hostile living conditions exist all over the year. The reptiles have developed numerous strategies to adapt themselves and to survive water-shortage, extreme sunlight, heat, variation of temperature, lack of cover, want of nourishment and special ground conditions in the sandy desert. Special mechanisms in morphology and single organs of desert reptiles are described as wel l as corresponding behaviour.

Salvador, A. & S. Peris (1975): Contribución al estudio de la fauna herpetológica de Río de Oro. -- Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología. Madrid 4 (1974): 49–60.--

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A new subspecies, Rona ridibunda riodeoroi, is described from northern Rio de Oro. Also is studied a small collection of reptiles from this territory, discussing the taxonomic status of some species.

Schleich, H.-H. (1987): Contributions to the Herpetology of Kouf National Park (NE-Libya) and Adjacent Areas -- SPIXIANA 10(1): 37-80--

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Herpetological surveys were carried out by RESETAR (1981) between September 25, 1981 and December 12, 1981 and by myself from April 1, 1983 to August 30, 1983. In this final report all species of amphibians and reptiles collected in Kouf National Park and its adjacent areas are mentioned and the data, descriptions and wildlife observations, together with the distributional maps of the herptiles of the park area, are compiled. - In the proposed 100,000 ha park area 2 amphibian, 3 turtle, 10 lizard and 7 snake species were found and described. For the adjacent areas, surrounding the region of the watershed, 1 further turtle species (Testudo [P.] kleinmanni), 2 further lizard species (Stenodactylus sthenodactylus sthenodactylus, Eumeces schneideri algeriensis) und 2 further snake species (Spalerosophis diadema, Cerastes sp.) could be added. General descriptions and information on the park are given, and ecological data summarize the information on the biology of the species mentioned.

Schmidt, K. P. (1939): Reptiles and amphibians from southwestern Asia. -- Zool. Ser. Field Mus. nat. hist. 24(7): 49 - 91.--


Schmidt, K.P. (1941): Reptiles and Amphibians from Central Arabia -- Zool. Ser. Field Mus. nat. Hist. 24(16): 161 - 165--


Schmidt, K.P. (1952): Fauna collected by the Expedition (amphibians & reptiles part) -- In: Field, H. (1952): Contributions to the Anthropology of the Faiyum, Sinai, Northern Sudan and Kenya. University of California Press: 339 - 341--


Schmidt, K.P. & H. Marx (1956): THE HERPETOLOGY OF SINAI -- Fieldina, zool. Ser. 39(4): 21 - 40--


Scortecci, G. (1934): RETTILI RACCOLTI NEL DESERTO LIBICO PALLA MISSIONE DESIO DELLA REALE ACCADEMIA D' ITALIA and RETTILI RACCOLTI NEL DESERTO LIBICO DAL PROF. LODOVICO DI CAPORIACCO -- Museo civico di Storia naturale XIII: 185 - 190 and 191 - 194--


Seurat, L.-G. (1928): Reptiles -- Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique Nord 4 (Etudes Zoologiques sur le Sahara Central: 22 - 23--


Shenbrot, G. & B. Krasnov (1997): Habitat relationship of Lizard fauna in the Ramon erosion cirque, Negev Highlands (Israel).- -- J. zool London 1997: 429 - 440.---

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Lizards were censused in the Ramon erosion cirque (Central Negev, Israel) in 1994 on 24 one-ha plots. Fifteen quantitative habitat variables, describing soil and vegetation structure, were measured at 25 points of each plot. Data were analysed to examine a classification of habitat types based on lizard species composition and the sets of environment variables influencing density of each lizard species. Three hundred and fifty three individuals of 14 lizard species were recorded on the sampling plots. Of these species, only one (Acanthodactylus boskianus) was abundant, eight (Ptyodactylus guttatus, Stenodactylus sthenodactylus, Mesalina guttulata, M. olivieri, Ophisops elegans, Ablepharus kitaibellii, Chalcides ocellatus, Eumesces schneiderii) were common, and five (Laudakia stellio, Pseudotrapelus sinaitus, Trapelus pallidus, Hemidactylus turcicus, Tropiocolotes steudneri) were rare. Four main habitat types and two sub-types were distinguished: wadis among loess hills (I); rock outcrops among loess hills (II); rock outcrops among gravel plains (III); wadis among gravel plains (IVa); open gravel plains (IVb), and sand dunes (IVc). Lizard density and biomass were greatest (15-19 ind. /ha; about 200 g/ha) in IVb, and IVc, and least (3. 7 ind. /ha; 38 g/ha) in III. Lizard species richness and diversity were low (three species) in IVc and higher and similar (6-10 species) in all other habitat types. Among common and abundant species, densities of three (A. boskianus, O. elegans, A. kitaibelii) were highly (30-60% of density dispersion) affected by habitat variables and densities of six (P. guttatus, S. sthenodactylus, M. guttulata, M. olivieri, C. ocellatus, E. schneiderii) were weakly (13-30% of dispersion) affected. Densities of S. sthenodactylus, A. boskianus, and M. guttulata were determined mainly by soil structure, of M. olivieri and O. elegans mainly by structure of annual vegetation, and of C. ocellatus, A. kitaibellii, and E. schneiderii mainly by the structure of shrub vegetation. Density of P. guttatus was determined by both soil and annual vegetation structure.

SINDACO, R. - N. FEDRIGHINI & A. VENCHI (1995): Contribution to the herpetology of Jordan -- Boll. Mus. reg. Sci. nat. Torino 13(2): 389 - 405--

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The authors report the data collected in two herpetological surveys during summer 1990 and spring 1994; moreover Jordan specimens conserved in the herpetological collections of the "Dipartimento di Biologia Animale dell'Universita di Torino" and of "Museo di Zoologia dell'Universita La Sapienza" (Rome) are examined. Coluber sinai is reported for the first time in Jordan and, together with Ablepharus kitaibelii, is added to the Arabian fauna. New localities are provided for Bunopus tuberculatus, Tenuidactylus scaber, Pristurus rupestris, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, all of them previously known in Jordan from very few localities. Some specimens are depicted in colour photographs.

Sindaco, R., G. Serra & M. Menegon (2006): New data on the Syrian herpetofauna, with a newly-recorded species of snake -- Zoology in the Middle East 37, 2006: 29-38.--

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New data on Syrian amphibians and reptiles collected between 1990 and 2004 are given. The most important findings are the Elapid snake Walterinnesia aegyptia, here reported for the first time from Syria; Zamenis hohenackeri and Vipera xanthina, previously known only from Mount Hermon; and the very rare and poorly known Telescopus nigriceps and Lytorhynchus kennedyi. Other species were previously known from only a very few Syrian localities. Kurzfassung. Es werden neue Daten über syrische Amphibien und Reptilien mitgeteilt, die zwischen 1990 und 2004 gesammelt wurden. Die wichigsten Funde stellen Walterinnesia aegyptia dar, die hier zum ersten Mal aus Syrien gemeldet wird; Zamenis hohenackeri und Vipera xanthina, die bisher nur vom Mount Hermon bekannt waren, und die sehr seltenen und wenig bekannten Arten Telescopus nigriceps und Lytorhynchus kennedyi. Für andere Arten waren bisher oft nur Einzelnachweise bekannt.

Steindachner, F. (1869): Reptilien. -- In: B. VON WÜLLERSTORF-URBAIR: REISE DER ÖSTERREICHISCHEN FREGATTE NOVARA UM DIE ERDE IN DEN JAHREN 1857, 1858, 1859. ZOOLOGISCHER THEIL. ERSTER BAND. (WIRBELTHIERE.). 98 pp + 3 plates --


Stemmler, O. (1972): Bericht über eine zweite herpetologische Sammelreise nach Marokko im Juli und August 1970. -- Monit. Zool. Ital. Suppl. IV(6): 123 - 158.--

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The present report on a herpetological expedition to northern, western, and southern Morocco in July and August, 1970, gives a taxonomic survey of the collected specimens, lists the localities and their geographical coordinates, and mentions the various biotopes and the distribution of the forms collected within these biotopes.

Stemmler, O. P. (1971): Herpetologische Beobachtungen in Marokko X: Im Lebensgebiet der Dornschwänze. -- AquaTerra 8/10: 108 - 115.--


Strauch, A. (1862): Essai d'une erpétologie de l'Algérie. -- Mémoires de l'Academie Impériale des Sciences de St. -Pétersbourg, 4: 1-85 --


Thilenius, G. (1898): Herpetologische Notizen aus Süd-Tunis -- Zool. JB. 10: 219 - 237 + 1 plate--


Thilenius, G. (1897): Der Farbenwechsel von Varanus griseus, Uromastix acanthinurus und Agame inermis -- Schwalbes Morphologische Arbeiten 7: 515 - 545 + 2 plates--


Tölg, F. (1904): Beiträge zur Kenntnis drüsenartiger Epidermoidalorgane der Eidechsen. -- Arbeiten aus dem Zoologischen Institut der Universität Wien und der Zoologischen Station in Triest 15(1): 1 - 36 (119 - 154)--


Vaillant, M.L. (1882): REPTILES ET BATRACIENS. In: MISSION G. RÉVOIL AUX PAYS ÇOMALIS. FAUNE ET FLORE -- In: GEORGES RÉVOIL: FAUNE ET FLORE DES PAYS COMALIS (AFRIQUE ORIENTALE). Paris. 31 pp.--


Vinciguerra, D. (1931): SPEDIZIONE SCIENTIFICA ALL' OASI DI CUFRA (Marzo -Luglio 1931) -- Ann. Mus. civ. stor. nat. Doria 60: 248 - 258--


Vinciguerra, D. (1927): Risultati zoologici della Missione inviata dalla R. Società Geografica Italiana per l'esplorazione dell'oasi di Giarabub (1926-1927). RETTILI, BATRACI E PESCI -- Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova, 52: 324 - 345--


Wagner, P. & W. Böhme (2007): A new species of the genus Trapelus Cuvier, 1816 (Squamata: Agamidae) from arid central Africa -- Bonner zoologische Beiträge 55 (2006)(2): 81–87--

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The Saharo-Sindian genus Trapelus contains 14 species, four of which occur in northern Africa. One of these taxa, Trapelus mutabilis, has a very widespread distribution from West to East Africa along the northern Saharan border. It has been identified as a species complex that includes several cryptic taxa. Together with a key of the so far described African species of the genus, the description of the first of these cryptic taxa is presented here.

WAGNER, P., J. MELVILLE, T.M. WILMS & A. SCHMITZ (2011): Opening a box of cryptic taxa – the first review of the North African desert lizards in the Trapelus mutabilis Merrem, 1820 complex (Squamata: Agamidae) with descriptions of new taxa -- Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 884–912--

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We present a review of the morphology and current taxonomy of North African Trapelus species. The Saharo-Sindian agamid genus contains 15 species, of which five occur in northern Africa. The taxonomy of this complex group continues to provide difficulties for taxonomists because of a lack of consistent morphologically diagnostic characters and relatively high intraspecific morphological variation. In particular, the widespread species Trapelus mutabilis, which occurs from Egypt in the east to Mauritania in the west, has been identified as a species complex and probably represents an artificial grouping of unrelated taxa. This taxonomic uncertainty is exacerbated because a type specimen for T. mutabilis was never designated. In our taxonomic review, we designate a neotype for T. mutabilis, allowing a review of the northern African species, the description of two new taxa, and the compilation of a comprehensive identification key. We present a multivariate analysis of morphology within T. mutabilis and, in addition, we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis incorporating a ~500-bp region of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and a relaxed molecular clock analysis to estimate the ages of clades within Trapelus. Our results demonstrate that these lineages have a deep and complex biogeographical history.

Weber, N.A. (1960): SOME IRAQ AMPHIBIANS AND REPTIILES WITH NOTES ON THEIR FOOD HABITS. -- Copeia 1960(2): 153 - 154--


Werner, F. (1929): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer zoologischen Forschungsreise nach Westalgerien und Marokko. -- Sitz.Ber. math.-nat.wiss. Kl. 138(1 u. 2): 1 - 34 + IV.--


Werner, F. (1909): Reptilien, Batrachier und Fische von Tripolis und Barka -- Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 27: 595 - 646 + 1 plate--


Werner, F. (1893): Herpetologische Nova. I. Eine neue Eidechse aus der Algerischen Sahara, Agama aspera n. sp. -- Zool. Anzeiger 16: 359 - 361--


Werner, F. (1937): Über Reptilien aus dem Hoggar-Gebirge -- Zool. Anz. 118 (1/2): 31-35--


Werner, F. (1899): Auf Reptilienjagd in Ägypten. Beobachtungen aus dem dortigen Tierleben -- Zoologischer Garten 40: 277 - 288--


Werner, Y.L. (1971): LIZARDS AND SNAKES FROM TRANSJORDAN, RECENTLY ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) -- Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. hist.) Zool. 21(6): 213 - 256 + 6 plates--

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A report on 45 lizards and snakes, representing 23 species and subspecies, collected in northern and southwestern Transjordan, mostly during 1963-1965. Taxonomic characters are presented, and compared with data from adjacent areas, mainly Cisjordan. Relevant Transjordanian specimens in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem are also considered, and some identifications are revised. Field observations are cited. Agama pallida haasi ssp. nov. is described (type: BM 1965.800; 18 paratypes in BM, HUJ, FMNH). The only additions, on the species level, to the TransJordanian fauna, are Coluber rhodorhachis Jan and Malpolon moilensis Reuss. The ecological and phytogeographical subdivision of Transjordan into Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, and Saharo-Sindian territories is reviewed. The distribution of reptiles appears to accord with this subdivision. The difference between the herpetofaunas of Trans- and Cisjordan, on the specific and subspecific levels, is greater in the south than in the north. Notably 7 Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Sindian forms of Transjordan do not occur in Cisjordan. It is suggested that the Wadi 'Arava together with the steep mountains bordering it on the east, may constitute a barrier to the distribution of reptiles.

Werner, Y.L. (1983): Lizards and snakes from eastern Lower Egypt in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem & Tel Aviv University, with range extensions -- Herpetological review 14: 29-31--


Werner, Y.L. (1980): Preliminery results of the herpetofaunal survey of Sinai (1956-57; 1967-79) with emphasis on the southern mountains -- Isr. J. Zool. 29: 209--


Werner, Y.L. (1982): Herpetofaunal Survey of the Sinai Peninsula (1967-77), with Emphasis on the Saharan Sand Community. pp. 153 - 161. -- In: N.J. Scott, Jr. (ed.) 1982. Herpetological communities: a symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists' League, August 1977. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildl. Res. Rep. 13. 239 pp.--

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The local interest in biogeography and ecology, and the paucity of data from areas surrounding Israel, led to intensive herpetological collecting in Sinai in 1956-57 and since 1967. Material in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and in Tel-Aviv University together exceeds 1,000 specimens, comprising one species of toad, Bufo viridis, four species of marine turtles, and 50 species of terrestrial reptiles. Of these, one was first reported from Sinai in 1957, nine in 1973, and two, Caretta caretta and Rhynchocalamus melanocephalus, herein. Twenty-two species which occur in contiguous areas of Israel orv Egypt or both, or have been reported from Sinai in the literature, were absent in the collected material. The sand dunes of northern Sinai are inhabited by a "community" of 10 psammophile reptile species of Saharan or Saharo-Arabian distribution. Each represents a different family or a genus of distinctive body size. Resource partitioning between related forms is sometimes indicated. Several other species which are not strict psammophiles (mainly snakes) also occur in these dunes.

Werner, Y.L. (1988): Herpetofaunal survey of Israel (1950-85), with comments on Sinai and Jordan and on zoogeographical heterogeneity -- In: Zoogeography of Israel, Ed. Y. Yom-Tov and E. Tchernov, Monographiae Biologicae, 62. W. Junk, Dordrecht. pp. 355-388.--

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Methodical collecting, with mapping, has amassed over 30,000 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from Israel (with the Golan plateau and part of Mt. Hermon) at Tel Aviv University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Included are at least 102 species and subspecies: seven amphibians, six marine turtles and 89 land and freshwater reptiles. Taxa described or discovered in Israel since 1950 (review by Haas) comprise 14 desert forms, six Mt. Hermon forms (including the endemic Cyrtodactytus amictopholis Hoofien, 1967), one mesic snake and two marine turtles. A few reptiles once reported from Israel have disappeared, including the Nile crocodile; probably also Discoglossus nigriventer Mendelssohn and Steinitz, 1943. A few others are seriously endangered. Sinai harbours seven additional species. Some comments are also made on the fauna of Jordan. Zoogeographically the Israeli herpetofauna is heterogeneous, showing at least 12 distribution patterns, but most forms are Mediterranean (sensu stricto) or Saharo-Arabian.

Wettstein, O. (1928): Amphibien und Reptilien aus Palästina und Syrien -- Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math. Nat. Klasse I. 137: 773 - 785--


Witte, G.F. (1930): MISSION SAHARIENNE AUGIÊRAS-DRAPER, 1927-192. REPTILES ET BATRACIENS -- Bull. Mus. natn. Hist, nat., Paris 2(2): 614 - 618--


Zavattari, E. (1924): VERTEBRATI DI CIRENAICA RACCOLTI DAL GENERALE MEDICO PROF. FRANCESCO TESTI -- Atti Soc. Nat. Math. Modena 6(1-2) [LIII e LIV]: 13 - 22--


Zavattari, E. (1930): Erpetologia della Cirenaica -- Archivio Zoologico Italiano, 14: 253 - 289--

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During the summer of 1929 the author made a very extensive collection of Amphibia and Reptiles in Cyrenaica. Usig this material as a basis, he has revised the existing knowledge about these groups, and finds that only 2 species of tailless Amphibia and 33 species of Reptilia, of which 2 are Chelonia, 19 Sauria and 12 Ophidia, are found in that region. He finds also that the geographical distribution is not uniform since some forms are found exclusively in the coastal region and on the high plateau, white others occur only in the oases of the Sahara. He finally discusses the relationship between the Reptilian and Amphibianfauna of Cyrenaica and that of North Africa and the mediterranean basin in general.